Objects such as disk drives, monitor, keyboard, printers are called hardware. Computer instructions, data or anything which can be stores electronically are software.
1. Input Device: This is a device used for sending instructions to the computer. Keyboard and mouse are the typical example of input device.
Fundamental components of a Computer
2. Output Devices: This device display what computer has accomplished. Monitor and printer are typical example of output device.
3. Memory: Memory stores data and programs temporarily while computer is performing computational task. RAM and ROM are the typical example of memory. It is also called main memory.
4. Storage device: This is a permanent storage device. Hard disk is a typical example of storage device.
5. CPU: This is the brain of computer which actually executes the pre-recorded instruction. It is called central processing unit.
6. Operating System: This is a most important program that runs on a computer. Every computer must have an operating system to run other programs. Windows 98, Windows 2000, Windows XP, Windows Vista, Linux, UNIX are the example of operating system.
7. Application Software: This is a program that does real work for computer users. Ms Word, Excel is the typical example of application software.
1. Personal computer: This is a small and relatively inexpensive computer designed for an individual user.
Types of Computers
2. Workstation: A workstation is like a personal computer, but it has a more powerful CPU and a higher-quality monitor. It is typically used for CAD/CAM, desktop publishing, software development etc.
3. Mini-computer: This is a mid-sized computer which lies between workstations and mainframes. In general, it is a multi-user computer capable of supporting from 10 to about 200 users simultaneously.
4. Mainframe: This is a very large, powerful and expensive multi-user computer capable of supporting many hundreds or thousands of users simultaneously.
5. Supercomputer: This is an extremely fast and expensive computer. They are employed for specialized applications like weather forecasting, nuclear energy research, and petroleum exploration etc.