Commonly Used Abbreviations Used Daily

Although, we tend to use short form of long words in daily life but there are many abbreviations which we don't remember. Below is the list of common abbreviations which are used in day to day life.


AMOLED: Active-Matrix Organic Light-Emitting Diode
APN: Access Point Name
ATM: Automated Teller Machine
ASLV: Augmented Satellite Launch Vehicle


Bcc: Blind Carbon Copy


Cc: Carbon Copy
CD: Compact Disc
CDMA: Code Division Multiple Access
CAPTCHA: Completely Automated Public Turing Test To Tell Computers And Humans Apart
CCTV: Closed Circuit Television
CPU: Central Processing Unit
CST: Central Sales Tax
CRR: Cash Reserve Ratio
CAG: Controller And Auditor General


DIVX: Digital Internet Video Access
DLNA: Digital Living Network Alliance
DOS: Disk Operating System
DTP: Desk Top Publishing
DVD: Digital Video Disk
DVI: Digital Video Interface
DVR: Digital Video Recorder
DSL: Digital Subscriber Line


EDGE: Enhanced Data Rates For Global Evolution
ESN: Electronic Serial Number
ECS: Electronic Clearing System
EPFO: Employee Provident Fund Organization


FAQ: Frequently Asked Questions
FSSAI: Food Safety & Standards Authority Of India
FERA: Foreign Exchange Regulation Act
FDI: Foreign Direct Investment


GIF: Graphics Interchange Format
GPRS: General Packet Radio Service
GPS: Global Positioning System
GSM: Global System For Mobile Communications
GUI: Graphical User Interface
GPU: Graphics Processing Unit
GDP: Gross Domestic Product
GPF: General Provident Fund
GMT: Global Mean Time
GNP: Gross National Product
GST: Goods and Service Tax


HDD: Hard Disk Drive
HDMI: High-Definition Multimedia Interface
HS: Hotspot
HSDPA: High Speed Down-Link Packet Access
HSPA: High Speed Packet Access
HSUPA: High-Speed Uplink Packet Access
HTTP: Hypertext Transfer protocol
HTML: Hyper Text Markup Language


IFSC: Indian Financial System Code
IMEI: International Mobile Equipment Identity
ISO: International Organization For Standardization
IVRS: Interactive Voice Response System
I/O: Input/Output
ISRO: International Space Research Organization
ISDN: Integrated Services Digital Network
IRDP: Integrated Rural Development Programme
ICU: Intensive Care Unit


JPEG: Joint Photographic Experts Group


LAN: Local Area Network
LCD: Liquid Crystal Display
LED: Light-Emitting Diode
LTE: Long Term Evolution


MBR: Master Boot Record
MMS: Multimedia Messaging Service
MP3: Mpeg-1 Audio Layer-3
MPEG: Moving Picture Experts Group
MAC (Address): Media Access Control
MICR: Magnetic Inc Character Recognition


NFC: Near Field Communication
NTFS: New Technology File System
NEFT: National Electronic Funds Transfer


OCR: Optical Character Recognition
OEM: Original Equipment Manufacturer
OLED: Organic Light Emitting Diode
OS: Operating System
OTG: On-The-Go
OVI: Ohio Video Intranet
OMR: Optical Mark Recognition


PAN: Permanent Account Number
PC: Personal Computer
PDA: Personal Digital Assistant
PDF: Portable Document Format
POC: Proof Of Concept
POI: Point Of Interest
PPI: Pixels Per Inch
PNG: Portable Network Graphics


QVGA: Quarter Video Graphics Array


RAM: Random Access Memory
ROM: Read Only Memory
RSS: Really Simple Syndication
RTC: Real Time Clock


SD Card: Secure Digital Card
SEO: Search Engine Optimization
SIM Card: Subscriber Identification Module Card
S-LCD: Super Liquid Crystal Display
SMS: Short Message Service
SNS: Social Network Service
SQL: Structured Query Language
SSL: Secure Sockets Layer
SAARC: South Asian Association For Regional Co-operation


TFT: Thin Film Transistor
TIFF: Tagged Image File Format
TCP: Transmission Control Protocol


UMTS: Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
UPS: Uninterruptible Power Supply
URL: Uniform Resource Locator
USB: Universal Serial Bus
UDP: User Datagram Protocol


VGA: Video Graphics Array
VIRUS: Vital Information Resources Under Siege
VPN:  Virtual Private Network


WCDMA: Wide-Band Code Division Multiple Access
Wi-Fi:  Wireless Fidelity
WINDOW: Wide Interactive Network Development For Office Work Solution
WLAN: Wireless Local Area Network
WVGA:  Wide Video Graphics Array
WWW: World Wide Web
WXGA: Widescreen Extended Graphics Array

How to Protect Yourself Against Ransomware Attack?

As more and more organizations are increasing their dependency on information technology, any disruption to these services can have negative impact on the organization’s functioning. Recent incidents of Ransomware is one of such that can cause severe disruption and financial loss to any organization. Hence, it is very important for any organization to keep their information technology (IT) infrastructure safe and hack-free as much as possible.

What is Ransomware, anyway?

Ransomware is a malicious program which encrypts user’s data on their computer and ask money in return to decrypt it. Encryption is a legitimate program in computer which is used for safeguarding data in the event that computer is lost. Nobody can open and look at the data without the encryption key. Hence, safeguarding the data from being compromised. The Ransomware utilizes that feature of the operating system to encrypt the compromised system by tricking a user to click on a malicious link sent either through email as attachment or links on enticing websites. Once the hard drive is encrypted by the ransomware, the victim is asked to pay money in return for decrypting the compromised data.

How it infects?

Mostly, it uses the techniques of social engineering – such as tricking a user to click on an email attachment or a link on website. Once the malicious link is clicked, it starts to encrypt the data on the compromised system.

How to protect against Ransomware?

As said above, it uses social engineering tricks to spread and compromise systems. In that case, the best defense can be to protect ourselves from being tricked. Apart from that following considers can help significantly to protect our data against Ransomware.
  • Keep your system updated all the time.
  • Be cautious in opening any email attachment or clicking on a link on any website.
  • Install anti-virus, update and scan your system regularly.
  • Keep backup of your data. If your data is backed up, the loss will be minimum. You can always format the system and re-install the operating system and restore the data from backup.
You may suggest any other protection techniques against Ransomware.

Massive Ransomware Attack

A massive Ransomware attack took place this weekend which has caused severe disruption to many organizations around the world. The name of the ransomware has been identified as “WannaCry”. The current available information indicates that the ransomware is initiated through SMBv2 remote code execution vulnerability in Microsoft Operating System based computers. Microsoft has provided a critical security update for the vulnerability in March 2017.

Affected Resources

All Windows operating systems which has not applied Microsoft Windows SMB Server (4013389) security update are most likely to be affected by WannaCry ransomware. Have a look at the following page for more details about the affected systems:
MS17-010: Security update for Windows SMB Server: March 14, 2017

Solutions / Response

1. Check all your system and make sure that all are updated with latest Windows Security patches

2. If you have IDS installed in your organization, regularly monitor and respond to IDS events promptly

3. Make sure that SMB ports (139, 445) are blocked from the Internet hosts in firewall rules

4. Make sure that the users in your organization are aware of this threat. Also, make them aware that it is spreading through email attachment and warn them to take extra caution while opening any link.

5. Make sure that you have good copy of backup of data for your organization

Commonly Used Abbreviations Used Daily

Although, we tend to use short form of long words in daily life but there are many abbreviations which we don't remember. Below is the l...