Showing posts from June, 2020

Difference between sda and hda in Linux

Do you understand what is the difference between /dev/hda and /dev/sda in Linux? In order to understand that, you need to understand how the drives are named in Linux operating system. This is very important to know how Linux names its drive. If you understand the naming convention of drives under Linux, you would easily figure out if the drive is IDE or SCSI. IDE convention   is -   /dev/hdx#   : Where x stands for drive and # stands for partition number that the distribution is on. The # would be 1 if there is only one partition on the drive. Drive                             Location /dev/hda       (ide0)    – Primary Master         - Master drive on the primary IDE bus /dev/hdb       (ide1)   – Primary Slave            - Slave drive on the primary IDE bus /dev/hdc       (ide2)   – Secondary Master      - Master drive on the secondary IDE bus /dev/hdd       (ide3)   – Secondary Slave         - Slave drive on the secondary IDE bus Note: In x86 PC architecture

Virtual Private Server Hosting Guide

INTRODUCTION This is a beginners guide to setup Linux VPS server. This guide is aimed at covering everything which will be needed by a beginner in order to build and maintain his/her own Linux based Virtual Private Server. If you don't know Linux or don't know what is a terminal, still the guide should help you achieve your goal of setting up your very first VPS Server. Web hosting can be tricky for beginners - there are wide varieties of hosting services available such as Shared Hosting, VPS hosting and Dedicated Hosting. Usually, most of us starts with shared hosting and gradually move to VPS or dedicated server hosting depending upon the traffic or bandwidth requirement of the website. As your website starts to get more and more web traffic, it excels the need to go for either VPS or dedicated server hosting. Shared Hosting is usually cheap and easy in setup but very limited in resources. On the other hand - dedicated servers are powerful and easy in customiz

Hide Files and Folders in Windows using attrib DOS Command

This post is the next to my post where I have explained simple approach to   hide files and folders in Windows XP. Two ways to hide files and folders are explained in that post – by changing attribute to hidden from Folder Properties and using   attrib   dos command. In this post, I am going to take the attrib command into deep and show you more   secure way to hide the files or folders. Lets talk Little more about attrib before starting implementation: attrib   is a DOS (disk operating system) command to change the attribute of a folder or a file at command prompt.   +   and   –   are used to set and clear the attribute respectively. If typed without any switches,   attrib   will show attributes of all the files in the current directory. Followings are the attributes available with attrib command: R   - Set the file Read-Only A   - Set Archive attribute to files. S   - System file attributes H   - Hidden file attributes. Here’s how you can   create a hidden folde

How To Display A Message on Startup in Windows

Do you wonder how a message is displayed at startup in Windows machine? It can been seen in corporate environment or even in personal computers. The message could be any customized message such as legal notice, company’s privacy policy, warning, or even welcome greeting message or any other kind of information. This feature can be configured with all versions of Windows. Follow the steps below: In Windows XP 1.   Go to   Start   ->   Run   and type   gpedit.msc   and hit Enter 2.   Navigate to   Local Computer Policy   ->   Computer Configuration   ->   Windows Settings   ->   Security Settings   -> Local Policies   ->   Security Options 3.   Now look into the right pane and click on “ Interactive Login: Message title for users attempting to log on ” and “ Interactive Login: Message text for users attempting to log on ” one by one and enter the title and text respectively 4.   Click   Apply   and   OK . 5.  Reboot the computer and you shou

CMD Commands for Windows Administrators

If you are a system administrator for Windows, you will prefer some of these command for day to day task. If you know them, it will make your job easier: - Warning: These are specifically for system admin purposes. So, while using pay extra care as it can cause serious problems in your computer if not used properly. Click on start and then you can type these commands directly in the search box in Windows 7:   - winver   - Shows the current version of Windows msconfig   - Opens MS System configuration utility which is one of widely used utility regedit   - Opens "Registry editor" services.msc   - Open all "services" running in your computer gpedit.msc   - Opens up the "Group policies" compmgmt.msc   - This opens up the "Computer management" tool where you can perform various computer management activities. devmgmt.msc   - This open up the "Device manager" tool. diskmgmt.msc   - This opens up

Show IP address using Simple Batch File Program

The below example is how to show IP address using simple batch file program. In the course, you will also learn how to modify the script to suit your own requirement. Batch file extension is .bat. Once file with extension .bat is clicked, it executes the dos command and show you the result in command prompt. We are going to use this feature and type few command to get the IP of your computer displayed quickly. So, Lets get started: - 1. Open the notepad and type following command in it - @echo @ipconfig @echo @pause 2. Click on   File   ->   Save As   and type the name of file " ip.bat " and save the file to your preferred location in your computer. The file name can be anything but .bat extension is compulsory. 3. After the file is saved, click on the file " ip.bat ". It will execute the commands we typed in the notepad and will display the IP address in the command prompt.

Linux User Administration - Basics

In this post, I will be discussing about Linux User Account and its administrations covering creating user accounts, adding the user to user's groups and granting permissions. If you have just setup your Linux system, you may still be using root account to log in. The root account has superuser access which other users don't have and therefore, it gives you complete control over the system. This is not a good practice to use root account for everyday use as a small  mistake can render the system completely unusable or a compromised root account can grant superuser access to a hacker. Hence, it is not advisable to continue using the system using root account for everyday job regardless of whether or not you are the only user in the system. Linux is a robust multi-user system but users are not automatically added. However, some accounts are created during Linux installation apart from root account and are meant to be used by system only. It is also highly advised not to

Check Disk Errors using ChkDsk in WIndows

A Hard Disk is digitally encoded, high speed storage hardware. Sometime it develops errors that can cause file corruption and windows errors. Mostly Windows corrects minor errors by itself, but overtime it can develop more serious problems and can make the hard disk unusable. Precaution is better than cure. If we take action in time then we can avoid serious data loss or problem. Microsoft has included a wonderful utility called chkdsk which can rectify this kind of problem. It can check the hard disk for errors and fix them. Chkdsk is advanced version of Scan Disk which was once used with earlier version of Windows OS. It is highly advised to run chkdsk once in 3-4 months. It will protect your data from unpredicted problems. What Does chkdsk Do Chkdsk will check the files and folders of the selected drive for any errors, lost clusters, lost chains, or any bad sectors and improves the performance of your computer. How to perform Disk Errors Check and fix them To check for

Linux System Accounting and Logging Basics

After you have completed installing Linux and set it up to do whatever you wanted it do, next big challenges is to maintain it. It appears a taunting task if you're not sure what's going on within the system. But you'll be much comfortable if you know about it. That's where System Accounting and Logging of Linux system comes in. Linux has very good system accounting and logging system in it. But you need to know certain thing in order to fully utilize the service. In this post, we'll be discussing four important areas where you will be checking what's going on withing your Linux system rather than configuring or modifying it. 1. Monitoring User Information 3. Quotas 2. System Logs 4. Monitoring Log Files MONITORING USER INFORMATION As Linux is a multi-user and multi-tasking system, it is extremely essential for you as system administrator to keep eyes on each users. Linux by default stores lot of information about its user unless it asked